Materials that convert electrical, chemical, or thermal energy into a shape change can be used to form artificial muscles. Such materials include bimetallic strips or host-guest materials or coiled fibers or yarns (see the Perspective by Tawfick and Tang). Kanik et al. developed a polymer bimorph structure from an elastomer and a semicrystalline polymer where the difference in thermal expansion enabled thermally actuated artificial muscles. Iterative cold stretching of clad fibers could be used to tailor the dimensions and mechanical response, making it simple to produce hundreds of meters of coiled fibers. Mu et al. describe carbon nanotube yarns in which the volume-changing material is placed as a sheath outside the twisted or coiled fiber. This configuration can double the work capacity of tensile muscles. Yuan et al. produced polymer fiber torsional actuators with the ability to store energy that could be recovered on heating. Twisting mechanical deformation was applied to the fibers above the glass transition temperature and then stored via rapid quenching.



Science, this issue p. 145, p. 150, p. 155; see also p. 125



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